When an application has been made cloud-aware and it can tolerate single VM failure, availability can be further improved by placing VMs in different parts of the data centres.
An availability zone is a way in which the user can specify a particular “location”
in which a host should boot. The most common usage for availability zones is to
group together servers in terms of availability but other features could be external
network connectivity or redundant power. When a nova boot command is issued, an
--availability-zone can be provided to specify which zone to start the VM in.
The current zones available can be found running
openstack availability zone list.
The results show the name of the availability zones currently available such as
$ openstack availability zone list +---------------+-------------+ | Zone Name | Zone Status | +---------------+-------------+ | cern-geneva-a | available | | cern-geneva-b | available | | cern-geneva-c | available | +---------------+-------------+
Each of these zones have different local network switch and power inputs. Thus a failure in one hardware component of the cern-geneva-a should not affect VMs running in cern-geneva-b.
To create a VM in a particular availability zone, this should be specified at VM creation time:
$ openstack server create --availability-zone cern-geneva-a ...
An additional availability zone called
- is used where dedicated servers
and special configurations are used.